Birth defect surveillance in Eswatini in 2020–2021 identified 0.80% defects (197/24 599 live and stillborn infants). Neural tube defect (NTD) prevalence was 0.08%, 0.08%, and 0.15% for 4902 women on dolutegravir preconception, 17 285 HIV-negative women, and 1320 women on efavirenz preconception, respectively, more definitively refuting the dolutegravir preconception NTD safety signal.


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