Congenital anomalies in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) are understudied despite the significant pediatric health burden. This retrospective longitudinal hospital-based study evaluated the records of 326 inpatient children under the age of two years with congenital anomalies at Bugando Medical Centre, a tertiary referral hospital in northwestern Tanzania. Classical logistic regression was used in the analysis of congenital malformation of muscles,  gastrointestinal malformation, oral facial clefts, neural tube defects, and skeletal malformations. A modified poisson regression was used to model risk factors for Central Nervous System (CNS) hydrocephalus and congenital heart disease (CHD). A majority (78.8%) of children included in the study were less than six months of age. Nearly half (48.8%) were diagnosed with CHD followed by CNS hydrocephalus (10.4%) and congenital malformation of muscles
(8.9%). Babies whose mothers missed periconceptual folic acid supplementation had 83% higher risk of  hydrocephalus (aPR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11–1.96) and 78% higher for CHD (aPR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.31–1.94). Male children had 1.67 higher odds of muscular congenital malformations (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.23–1.89). Less than 37 gestational age had a 1.86 higher odds of muscular congenital malformations (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.53–3.66). Our study highlights the critical need for folic acid supplementation and establishes a need
for a registry and the potential for mapping. 


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